Accepted for Publication: November 18, 2013.
Published Online: February 17, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.14673.
Study concept and design: Reynolds.
Acquisition of data: MacLaren.
Analysis and interpretation of data: MacLaren, Reynolds, Allen.
Drafting of the manuscript: MacLaren.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: MacLaren, Reynolds, Allen.
Statistical analysis: MacLaren, Allen.
Administrative, technical, and material support: Reynolds.
Study supervision: Reynolds.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Previous Presentation: An abstract of this study was presented as a poster at the Society of Critical Care Medicine Congress; January 10-13, 2014; San Francisco, California.
Additional Contributions: The Premier Perspective Database was provided in kind by Kavita Nair, PhD, Center for Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.