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  • JAMA Internal Medicine October 1, 2016

    Figure 1: Construction of the Base and Study Cohorts

    HAART indicates highly active antiretroviral therapy; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus.
  • The HIV Treatment Cascade—A New Tool in HIV Prevention

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA Intern Med. 2015; 175(4):596-597. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.8199
  • Timing of HAART Initiation and Clinical Outcomes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Seroconverters

    Abstract Full Text
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    Arch Intern Med. 2011; 171(17):1560-1569. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.401
  • JAMA Internal Medicine September 26, 2011

    Figure: Timing of HAART Initiation and Clinical Outcomes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Seroconverters

    Figure 2. Weighted semiparametric survival curves for time to combined end point of first AIDS diagnosis or death from all causes (black lines) or death alone (blue lines) comparing patients who initiated (thin lines) or deferred (thick lines) highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) stratified by CD4 cell count: 0 to 49/μL (A), 50 to 199/μL (B), 200 to 349/μL (C), 350 to 499/μL (D), and 500 to 799/μL (E). Du indicates number of unique individuals in the HAART deferral group who remained in the risk set at time t; Iu, number of unique individuals in the HAART initiation group who remained in the risk set at time t; Nu, number of unique individuals in the CD4 stratum overall who remained in the risk set at time t.
  • JAMA Internal Medicine September 26, 2011

    Figure: Timing of HAART Initiation and Clinical Outcomes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Seroconverters

    Figure 3. Assessing model sensitivity and results of subgroup analyses. Log hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for crude (cHR) and adjusted (aHR) estimates for the combined end point of first AIDS diagnosis or death from all causes. Sensitivity analyses include censoring outcomes of patients who initiated monotherapy and dual therapy or who did not start highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) within 6 months after first CD4 cell count less than 200/μL (S1), censoring at monotherapy and dual therapy or for failure to initiate HAART within 6 months of first CD4 cell count less than 350/μL (S2), requiring baseline viral load measure (S3), requiring CD4 cell count within the last 45 days of baseline (S4), and beginning follow-up in January 1998 (S5). Subgroup analyses are presented for those without and with a known injecting drug use (IDU) history.
  • HAART for HIV-1 Infection: Zeroing In on When to Start: Comment on “Timing of HAART Initiation and Clinical Outcomes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Seroconverters”

    Abstract Full Text
    Arch Intern Med. 2011; 171(17):1569-1570. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.402
  • Spectrum of Cancer Risk Late After AIDS Onset in the United States

    Abstract Full Text
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    Arch Intern Med. 2010; 170(15):1337-1345. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2010.253
  • JAMA Internal Medicine February 8, 2010

    Figure 1: Standard Care Impact on Effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Interventions: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Flowchart: inclusion and exclusion of studies. Only primary reasons for exclusion or dropout are reported. DOT indicates directly observed therapy; HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy; and RCT, randomized controlled trial.
  • Standard Care Impact on Effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Interventions: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Abstract Full Text
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    Arch Intern Med. 2010; 170(3):240-250. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2009.536
  • JAMA Internal Medicine February 8, 2010

    Figure 4: Standard Care Impact on Effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Interventions: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Expected viral load rate differences compared with low, medium, or high standard care capacity (SCC), as illustrated for the study by Remien et al. The lines represent the expected effect sizes; the gray shading, the ranges. The estimated effects under the observed (SCC) conditions are indicated by the open circles. Low SCC: instructions for taking medication, feedback clinical results, encouraging to adhere; medium SCC adds verbal and written information (human immunodeficiency virus, highly active antiretroviral therapy, adherence, dealing with adverse effects) and tailored medication planning including cues, week boxes, and social support; and high SCC adds continued attention for adherence problems and solutions during follow-up, provision of materials (eg, alarm devices), and a telephone number in case of problems. The assumption is that all interventions are delivered for at least 12 weeks and on top of standard care.
  • The Evidence Chasm

    Abstract Full Text
    Arch Intern Med. 2010; 170(3):306-306. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2009.540
  • Primary Esophageal Carcinoma in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    Abstract Full Text
    Arch Intern Med. 2010; 170(2):203-207. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2009.490
  • JAMA Internal Medicine January 25, 2010

    Figure: Primary Esophageal Carcinoma in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    AIDS-associated esophageal cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. A, A positron emission tomographic scan showing uptake from an esophageal adenocarcinoma in a human immunodeficiency virus–positive person, with locoregional lymph node involvement. B, Computed tomographic scan in the same patient showing esophageal obstruction. C, Histologic staining in this patient with a primary esophageal adenocarcinoma (hematoxylin-eosin, original magnification ×400).
  • Cutaneous Malignancies Among HIV-Infected Persons

    Abstract Full Text
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    Arch Intern Med. 2009; 169(12):1130-1138. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2009.104
  • JAMA Internal Medicine June 22, 2009

    Figure 2: Cutaneous Malignancies Among HIV-Infected Persons

    Age-adjusted incidence rates of cutaneous malignancies before the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era (1986-1995) and during the HAART era (1996-2006). The rates for Kaposi sarcoma (KS) apply to men only; the rates for non–AIDS-defining cancers (NADC) apply to white/non-Hispanic men only. The rates are age-adjusted to the appropriate US 2000 standard population. BCC indicates basal cell carcinoma; MM, malignant melanoma; and SCC, squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Cost-effectiveness of HIV Monitoring Strategies in Resource-Limited Settings: A Southern African Analysis

    Abstract Full Text
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    Arch Intern Med. 2008; 168(17):1910-1918. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2008.1
  • JAMA Internal Medicine September 22, 2008

    Figure 2: Cost-effectiveness of HIV Monitoring Strategies in Resource-Limited Settings: A Southern African Analysis

    Effect of inpatient costs on cost-effectiveness of CD4 count monitoring. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of monitoring the CD4 counts and starting highly active antiretroviral therapy at 200/μL compared with a symptom-based strategy is represented on the y-axis. A negative ratio suggests that monitoring the CD4 counts was cost saving. The symptom-based strategy is less costly than monitoring the CD4 counts when the inpatient stay is less than US $120 per day. At US $20 per day, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is just less than US $700 per life-year gained (LYG).
  • JAMA Internal Medicine September 22, 2008

    Figure 1: Cost-effectiveness of HIV Monitoring Strategies in Resource-Limited Settings: A Southern African Analysis

    Health and cost outcomes of monitoring strategies. Open symbols indicate strategies that were dominated by other strategies either through strict dominance (less effective and more costly than another strategy) or extended dominance (less effective and more costly than a mix of other strategies). All CD4-based strategies were more effective and less costly than the symptom-based strategies. Starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at CD4 350/μL was always more effective than starting at 200/μL, regardless of viral load (VL) monitoring. More frequent monitoring was generally more effective than less frequent monitoring but was dominated in most cases. Squares indicate the symptom-based strategies; circles, the CD4-based strategies; diamonds, the CD4-VL strategies; and OD, opportunistic diseases.
  • Research Letters

    Abstract Full Text
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    Arch Intern Med. 2008; 168(17):1926-1933. doi: 10.1001/archinte.168.17.1926
  • Effectiveness of Antiretroviral Treatment in a South African Program: A Cohort Study

    Abstract Full Text
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    Arch Intern Med. 2008; 168(1):86-93. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2007.10