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 Showing 1-20 of 62 Articles
Original Investigation  FREE
Lisa Harnack, DrPH; J. Michael Oakes, PhD; Brian Elbel, PhD; Timothy Beatty, PhD; Sarah Rydell, MPH; Simone French, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Strategies to improve the nutritional status of those participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) are of interest to policymakers.

Objective  To evaluate whether the proposed policy of incentivizing the purchase of fruits and vegetables and prohibiting the purchase of less nutritious foods in ...

Original Investigation  FREE
James Baggs, PhD; Scott K. Fridkin, MD, MPH; Lori A. Pollack, MD, MPH; Arjun Srinivasan, MD, MPH; John A. Jernigan, MD, MS
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The rising threat of antibiotic resistance and other adverse consequences resulting from the misuse of antibiotics requires a better understanding of antibiotic use in hospitals in the United States.

Objective  To use proprietary administrative data to estimate patterns of US inpatient antibiotic use in recent ...

Invited Commentary: Tipping the Balance Towards Fewer Antibiotics; Ateev Mehrotra, MD, MPH; Jeffrey A. Linder, MD, MPH
Original Investigation 
Sebastian L. Johnston, MBBS, PhD; Matyas Szigeti, MSc; Mary Cross, BA (Hons); Christopher Brightling, MBBS, PhD; Rekha Chaudhuri, MBBS, MD; Timothy Harrison, MBBS, PhD; Adel Mansur, MBBS, PhD; Laura Robison, BSc; Zahid Sattar, BSc, PhD; David Jackson, MBBS, PhD; Patrick Mallia, MBBS, PhD; Ernie Wong, MBBS, BSc; Christopher Corrigan, MA, PhD; Bernard Higgins, MBBS; Philip Ind, MB, BChir, PhD; Dave Singh, MB, BChir, MD; Neil C. Thomson, MBChB, MD; Deborah Ashby, PhD, CStat; Anoop Chauhan, MBBS, PhD; For the AZALEA Trial Team
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Guidelines recommend against antibiotic use to treat asthma attacks. A study with telithromycin reported benefit, but adverse reactions limit its use.

Objective  To determine whether azithromycin added to standard care for asthma attacks in adults results in clinical benefit.

Design, Setting, and Participants  The ...

Invited Commentaries: AZALEA Trial Highlights Antibiotic Overuse in Acute Asthma Attacks; Guy G. Brusselle, MD, PhD; Eva Van Braeckel, MD, PhD Tipping the Balance Towards Fewer Antibiotics; Ateev Mehrotra, MD, MPH; Jeffrey A. Linder, MD, MPH
Invited Commentary 
Guy G. Brusselle, MD, PhD; Eva Van Braeckel, MD, PhD

Asthma affects more than 300 million people worldwide, causing variable symptoms of cough, chest tightness, and exertional or nocturnal dyspnea due to chronic inflammation of the lower airways and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Acute episodes of worsening respiratory symptoms, called acute exacerbations or asthma attacks, can be life-threatening, and induce ...

Invited Commentary 
Marlene B. Schwartz, PhD

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the largest federal food assistance program and a critical component of the social safety net. The primary purpose of SNAP is to alleviate hunger. A body of research indicates that the program succeeds in this key mission and may also help ...

Invited Commentary 
Ateev Mehrotra, MD, MPH; Jeffrey A. Linder, MD, MPH

News of patients with broadly resistant “superbugs” have recently raised public awareness of the risks of antibiotic overuse. But unnecessary antibiotic use is not a new problem; it has been a public health priority for decades and 2 new articles1,2 in the current issue of ...

Review  FREE
Daniel J. Morgan, MD, MS; Sanket S. Dhruva, MD; Scott M. Wright, MD; Deborah Korenstein, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Overuse of medical care is an increasingly recognized problem in clinical medicine.

Objective  To identify and highlight original research articles published in 2015 that are most likely to reduce overuse of medical care, organized into 3 categories: overuse of testing, overtreatment, and questionable use of ...

Teachable Moment 
Jana Bregman, MD; Wade Iams, MD; Cecelia Theobald, MD, MPH

This Teachable Moment discusses the need to recognize the risks of catheter-associated trauma as an impetus for reducing the frequency of unnecessary urinary catheterization.

Challenges in Clinical Electrocardiography 
Thomas Nguyen, MD; Amina Khaldi, MD; Ruben Casado-Arroyo, MD, PhD

A man in his 60s presented for shortness of breath on exertion for several months. The patient denied any chest pain or palpitations. Medical history included liver transplantation for hepatocarcinoma and chronic kidney disease. Physical examination findings were normal except for tachycardia at 114 bpm. An electrocardiogram (ECG) ...

Research Letter 
Rene Rodriguez-Gutierrez, MD, MSc; Naykky Singh Ospina, MD, MSc; Rozalina G. McCoy, MD, MS; Kasia J. Lipska, MD; Nilay D. Shah, PhD; Victor M. Montori, MD, MSc; for the Hypoglycemia as a Quality Measure in Diabetes Study Group

This study assesses the inclusion and prioritization of hypoglycemia in contemporary clinical guidelines and performance measures for patients with diabetes.

Research Letter 
John W. Ayers, PhD, MA; Eric C. Leas, MPH; Mark Dredze, PhD; Jon-Patrick Allem, PhD, MA; Jurek G. Grabowski, PhD; Linda Hill, MD, MPH

This study reports on an assessment of drivers and pedestrians distracted by Pokémon GO.

Original Investigation 
Grethe Albrektsen, PhD; Ivar Heuch, PhD; Maja-Lisa Løchen, MD, PhD; Dag Steinar Thelle, MD, PhD; Tom Wilsgaard, PhD; Inger Njølstad, MD, PhD; Kaare Harald Bønaa, MD, PhD

Importance  It is not clear to what extent the higher incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in men vs women is explained by differences in risk factor levels because few studies have presented adjusted risk estimates for sex. Moreover, the increase in risk of CHD in postmenopausal ...

Invited Commentary 
Elissa Ladd, PhD, FNP-BC; Alex Hoyt, PhD, FNP

Grundy and colleagues1 have elegantly quantified a practice that has garnered scant attention in the literature; that is, that pharmaceutical promotions reach well beyond the bounds of physicians and even other authorized prescribers, such as nurse practitioners (NPs). The findings that nonprescribing nurses were present at nearly ...

Invited Commentary 
Marion Nestle, PhD, MPH

Industry-sponsored nutrition research, like that of research sponsored by the tobacco, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries, almost invariably produces results that confirm the benefits or lack of harm of the sponsor’s products, even when independently sponsored research comes to opposite conclusions.1 Although considerable evidence demonstrates that those industries ...

Special Communication  FREE
Cristin E. Kearns, DDS, MBA; Laura A. Schmidt, PhD, MSW, MPH; Stanton A. Glantz, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Early warning signals of the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk of sugar (sucrose) emerged in the 1950s. We examined Sugar Research Foundation (SRF) internal documents, historical reports, and statements relevant to early debates about the dietary causes of CHD and assembled findings chronologically into a narrative case study. ...

Invited Commentary: Food Industry Funding of Nutrition Research; Marion Nestle, PhD, MPH
Evidence to Practice 
David J. T. Campbell, MD, MSc; Lesley J. J. Soril, MSc; Fiona Clement, PhD

This simulated analysis of cost-sharing in member nations of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development found a large variation in costs borne by patients, often dependent on age, comorbidities, and socioeconomic status.

Teachable Moment 
David S. Raymer, MD; David L. Brown, MD

This Teachable Moment describes a patient who died from respiratory failure after a cardiologist chose an individualized treatment approach rather than a more conservative, evidence-based approach.

Research Letter 
Quinn Grundy, PhD, RN; Alice Fabbri, MD; Barbara Mintzes, PhD; Swestika Swandari, BSc(Pharm); Lisa Bero, PhD

This report describes the extent of inclusion of nurses in pharmaceutical company-sponsored educational events in Australia.

Invited Commentary: Pharmaceutical Industry Interactions With Nonprescribing Clinicians; Elissa Ladd, PhD, FNP-BC; Alex Hoyt, PhD, FNP
Viewpoint 
Stephanie R. Morain, PhD, MPH; Leah R. Fowler, JD; Jessica L. Roberts, JD

This Viewpoint examines employers’ use of wellness program analytics to predict pregnancy.

This Editorial discusses the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement on screening for latent tuberculosis infection in adults.

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