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 Showing 41-60 of 76 Articles
Research Letter 
Connor Emdin, HBSc; Ayodele Odutayo, MD; Allan Hsiao, AB; Mubeen Shakir, BSc; Sally Hopewell, DPhil; Kazem Rahimi, DM; Douglas G. Altman, DSc
Trial registration has been proposed to reduce selective publication and outcome reporting, thereby increasing accountability in the conduct of research.1 Since 2005, policy makers, journal editors, and research funders have increasingly endorsed and mandated trial registration.2 However, evidence to support the proposed benefits of trial registration is lacking. Analysis of ...
Original Investigation 
Anupam B. Jena, MD, PhD; Vinay Prasad, MD; Dana P. Goldman, PhD; John Romley, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Thousands of physicians attend scientific meetings annually. Although hospital physician staffing and composition may be affected by meetings, patient outcomes and treatment patterns during meeting dates are unknown.

Objective  To analyze mortality and treatment differences among patients admitted with acute cardiovascular conditions during dates of ...

Original Investigation 
Kenneth K. Mugwanya, MBChB, MS; Christina Wyatt, MD, MS; Connie Celum, MD, MPH; Deborah Donnell, PhD; Nelly R. Mugo, MBChB, MPH; Jordan Tappero, MD, MPH; James Kiarie, MBChB, MPH; Allan Ronald, MD; Jared M. Baeten, MD, PhD; for the Partners PrEP Study Team
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) use has been associated with declines in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) when used as part of antiretroviral treatment by persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1, but limited data are available for risk when used as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) ...

Invited Commentary 
Deborah Korenstein, MD
Strategies to improve the US health care system have coalesced around the concept of value, defined as the balance between potential benefits and potential harms and costs of care. Quantification of benefits and harms must be informed by the best available evidence; the patient’s perspective is central to shaping the ...
Invited Commentary 
Mitchell H. Katz, MD
Thirty years after the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), about 50 000 Americans and over 2 million persons worldwide are infected each year, most of them through sexual relations.1 This occurs despite detailed knowledge of how HIV is transmitted and the availability of a highly effective, cheap, safe ...
Editor's Note 
Rita F. Redberg, MD, MSc
While at the large cardiology conventions, my colleagues and I have often joked that the convention center would be the safest place in the world to have a heart attack.
Tammy C. Hoffmann, PhD; Chris Del Mar, MD, FRACGP
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Unrealistic patient expectations of the benefits and harms of interventions can influence decision making and may be contributing to increasing intervention uptake and health care costs.

Objective  To systematically review all studies that have quantitatively assessed patients’ expectations of the benefits and/or harms of any ...

Mahmood Al-Abri, MD; Brian M. Wong, MD; Jerome A. Leis, MD, MSc
Simina R. Luca, MD; Mandana Kayedi, MD; Brian M. Wong, MD
Original Investigation 
Jennifer S. Haas, MD, MSc; Jeffrey A. Linder, MD, MPH; Elyse R. Park, PhD, MPH; Irina Gonzalez, MD, TTS; Nancy A. Rigotti, MD; Elissa V. Klinger, ScM; Emily Z. Kontos, ScD; Alan M. Zaslavsky, PhD; Phyllis Brawarsky, MPH; Lucas X. Marinacci, BA; Stella St Hubert, AB; Eric W. Fleegler, MD, MPH; David R. Williams, PhD, MPH

Importance  Widening socioeconomic disparities in mortality in the United States are largely explained by slower declines in tobacco use among smokers of low socioeconomic status (SES) than among those of higher SES, which points to the need for targeted tobacco cessation interventions. Documentation of smoking status in ...

Invited Commentary 
Anne Joseph, MD, MPH; Steven Fu, MD, MSCE
Most smokers want to quit smoking but try to stop without using tobacco cessation treatment. Because abundant evidence supports the efficacy of behavioral, pharmacologic, and combination treatment for tobacco dependence, it is important to increase the proportion of smokers who take advantage of therapy. Evidence confirms that current tobacco treatment ...
Editor's Note 
Joseph S. Ross, MD, MHS
In the United States, it has been estimated that in the past year more than one-third of adults used indoor tanning facilities, exposing themselves to high-pressure sunlamp products that emit UV light and radiation.1 Rates exceeded 50% among university students and were nearly 20% among adolescents. Unfortunately, it has taken ...
Research Letter 
Jae Moon Yun, MPH; Dong Wook Shin, MD, DrPH, MBA; Seung-sik Hwang, MD, PhD; Juhee Cho, MA, PhD; You Seon Nam, MD; Jung Hoe Kim, DrPH; Be Long Cho, MD, MPH, PhD
Although antibiotics are not required for treating uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection (URTI),1 which is mostly viral, they are often prescribed, fueling antibiotic resistance and loss of protective flora. Accordingly, many studies worldwide have tried to decrease inappropriate antibiotic prescribing behavior.2
Research Letter 
Isla Rippon, MSc; Andrew Steptoe, DSc
Self-perceived age reflects appraisals of health, physical limitations, and well-being in later life.1 Older people typically feel younger than their chronologic age, and it is thought that those who feel younger than their actual age have reduced mortality.2,3 We sought to confirm this relationship in a large representative population sample, ...
Research Letter 
Gery P. Guy Jr, PhD, MPH; Meg Watson, MPH; Tadesse Haileyesus, MS; Joseph L. Annest, PhD, MS
Indoor tanning exposes users to intense UV radiation, which is a known carcinogen.1 However, little is known about the more immediate adverse outcomes of indoor tanning. To our knowledge, this study provides the first national estimates of indoor tanning–related injuries treated in US hospital emergency departments (EDs).
Tara Lagu, MD, MPH; Christine Griffin, JD; Peter K. Lindenauer, MD, MSc
Patients with disabilities face barriers when they attempt to access health care.1 These barriers include physical barriers to entering health care establishments, lack of accessible equipment, lack of a safe method for transferring the patient to an examination table, and the lack of policies that facilitate access.2 The barriers persist ...
Austin Lammers, MD; Read Pierce, MD
Marc G. Ghany, MD, MHSc
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection accounts for approximately 30% of cases of cirrhosis and one-quarter of hepatocellular carcinomas worldwide and is the leading indication for liver transplant in the adult US population.1 Although the incidence of chronic HCV infection is declining in the United States, the number of deaths ...
Original Investigation 
Adeel A. Butt, MD, MS; Peng Yan, MS; Vincent Lo Re III, MD, MSCE; David Rimland, MD; Matthew B. Goetz, MD; David Leaf, MD, MPH; Matthew S. Freiberg, MD, MSc; Marina B. Klein, MD; Amy C. Justice, MD, PhD; Kenneth E. Sherman, MD, PhD; for the ERCHIVES (Electronically Retrieved Cohort of HCV Infected Veterans) Study Team
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Knowing the rate of liver fibrosis progression in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected persons can help inform patients and providers (clinicians, medical institutions or organizations, and third-party payers) in making treatment decisions.

Objective  To determine the rate and factors associated with liver fibrosis progression and hepatic ...

Original Investigation 
Jean-Pascal Fournier, MD, PhD; Laurent Azoulay, PhD; Hui Yin, MSc; Jean-Louis Montastruc, MD, PhD; Samy Suissa, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Tramadol is a weak opioid analgesic whose use has increased rapidly, and it has been associated with adverse events of hypoglycemia.

Objective  To assess whether tramadol use, when compared with codeine use, is associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for hypoglycemia.

Design, Setting, and ...

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