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 Showing 21-40 of 78 Articles
Original Investigation 
Wen-Qing Li, PhD; Abrar A. Qureshi, MD, MPH; Kathleen C. Robinson, PhD; Jiali Han, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The RAS/RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) kinase/ERK cascade plays a crucial role in melanoma cell proliferation and survival. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) is a phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5A inhibitor commonly used for erectile dysfunction. Recent studies have shown that BRAF activation down-regulates PDE5A levels, and ...

Perspective  FREE
Susan Molchan, MD
“Why are you here?” That was often the first question among fellow attendees as we met each other at a recent conference. It seemed perfectly reasonable at the time, but later I realized I had never attended a meeting where that question had arisen. Many of us circulate through the ...
Invited Commentary 
Alfred I. Neugut, MD, PhD
When one sees a patient newly diagnosed as having cancer, after finishing the initial discussion and treatment plan, it is almost inevitable that the patient or a family member will inquire, “What else should he [or she] do?” The implication is that, aside from whatever benefits orthodox therapy—surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy—may ...
Invited Commentary 
Robert M. Wachter, MD
“So, how many patients should a hospitalist take care of?” I have been asked that question hundreds of times over the years.
Invited Commentary 
Michael Puisis, DO
The United States has the second largest number of prisoners (1.4 million persons in federal and state prisons)1 and the highest rate of incarceration (716 per 100 000) of all nations in the world.2 One of every 100 adult Americans is incarcerated.1
Research Letter 
Michael Curley, MD; Marcie Berger, MD; James Roth, MD; Ivor Benjamin, MD; Jason Rubenstein, MD
Catheter ablation has become an important strategy for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and is generally safe. Conflicting data have emerged on the mortality and complication rates in these procedures. This study examines the in-hospital outcomes for ablation for supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias in the large Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) ...
Research Letter 
Cody N. Dashiell-Earp, MD, MBA; Douglas S. Bell, MD, PhD; Alexis O. Ang, MD, MPH; Daniel Z. Uslan, MD, MS
The use of contact isolation precautions for patients colonized or infected with drug-resistant or easily transmissible organisms is a widely accepted strategy for reducing transmission of hospital-associated infections. Although hospitals throughout the country have implemented these practices at great logistical and financial expense, there are few high-quality data to support ...
Original Investigation 
Daniel J. Elliott, MD, MSCE; Robert S. Young, MD, MS; Joanne Brice, MD; Ruth Aguiar, BA; Paul Kolm, PhD

Importance  Hospitalist physicians face increasing pressure to maximize productivity, which may undermine the efficiency and quality of care.

Objective  To determine the association between hospitalist workload and the efficiency and quality of inpatient care.

Design, Setting, and Participants  We conducted a retrospective cohort study of ...

Original Investigation 
Jun Cheng, MD; Wen Zhang, MMed; Xiaohui Zhang, MMed; Fei Han, MD; Xiayu Li, MD; Xuelin He, MD; Qun Li, MMed; Jianghua Chen, MMed
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) may have different effects on cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM).

Objective  To conduct a meta-analysis to separately evaluate the effects of ACEIs and ARBs on all-cause mortality, CV deaths, and major ...

Original Investigation 
Marlies S. Reimers, MD; Esther Bastiaannet, PhD; Ruth E. Langley, MD; Ronald van Eijk, PhD; Ronald L. P. van Vlierberghe, BSc; Valery E. P. Lemmens, PhD; Myrthe P. P. van Herk-Sukel, PhD; Tom van Wezel, PhD; Riccardo Fodde, PhD; Peter J. K. Kuppen, PhD; Hans Morreau, MD; Cornelis J. H. van de Velde, MD; Gerrit Jan Liefers, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Use of aspirin (which inhibits platelet function) after a colon cancer diagnosis is associated with improved overall survival. Identifying predictive biomarkers of this effect could individualize therapy and decrease toxic effects.

Objective  To demonstrate that survival benefit associated with low-dose aspirin use after a diagnosis ...

Original Investigation 
Jaimie P. Meyer, MD; Javier Cepeda, MPH; Johnny Wu, MD; Robert L. Trestman, MD, PhD; Frederick L. Altice, MD, MA; Sandra A. Springer, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) management in correctional settings is logistically feasible, but HIV-related outcomes before release have not been recently systematically examined.

Objective  To evaluate HIV treatment outcomes throughout incarceration, including jail and prison.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Retrospective cohort study of longitudinally linked ...

Andrew James Foy, MD; Jennifer Grando Ting, MD
Gail R. Wilensky, PhD; Rita F. Redberg, MD, MSc
It is hard to imagine a more tumultuous year for health policy in the United States than 2013. Yet 2014 and the actual start of coverage expansions under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) may prove to have at least as many challenges. In this health policy update, ...
Arnold Milstein, MD, MPH; Robert Kocher, MD
In response to a 2013 judicial decision lifting a 34-year-old injunction, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) recently announced that it will release patient-anonymized information about Medicare payments made to individually identified physicians. The only exception will be when the CMS determines that a physician’s right to privacy ...
Editor's Note 
Mitchell H. Katz, MD
Harm reduction is one of the pillars of modern public health. For example, when people criticized methadone treatment as only substituting one drug for another (heroin), public health advocates pointed to research showing that methadone use led to users decreasing or ceasing their heroin use and living more functional lives. ...
Invited Commentary 
Marc J. M. Bonten, MD, PhD
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is among the most frequently occurring infections among critically ill patients, and its development is associated with poor patient prognosis. As such, VAP has been an important topic of clinical research in intensive care medicine, pulmonology, infectious diseases, and clinical microbiology. Yet, after more than 30 years ...
Invited Commentary 
David Carnahan, MD, MSCE
Research Letter 
Rachel A. Grana, PhD, MPH; Lucy Popova, PhD; Pamela M. Ling, MD, MPH
Although electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or electronic nicotine delivery systems) are aggressively promoted as smoking cessation aids,1 studies of their effectiveness for cessation have been unconvincing.2,3 One randomized trial comparing e-cigarettes with and without nicotine with a nicotine patch found no differences in 6-month quit rates.2 Population-based, longitudinal studies have also ...
Research Letter 
Gordon H. Sun, MD, MS; Nicholas M. Moloci, BSE; Kelsey Schmidt; Mark P. MacEachern, MLIS; Reshma Jagsi, MD, DPhil
Team-based research in medicine is common.1 Simultaneously, women’s role in the medical profession has grown, including the representation of women as authors of academic publications.2 We studied the extent to which women lead clinical trial publications from organized collaborative groups in oncology.
Topics: cancer
Original Investigation 
Michael Klompas, MD; Kathleen Speck, MPH; Michael D. Howell, MD; Linda R. Greene, RN; Sean M. Berenholtz, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Regular oral care with chlorhexidine gluconate is standard of care for patients receiving mechanical ventilation in most hospitals. This policy is predicated on meta-analyses suggesting decreased risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia, but these meta-analyses may be misleading because of lack of distinction between cardiac surgery and non–cardiac ...

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