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 Showing 21-40 of 66 Articles
Original Investigation 
Frank van Hees, MSc; Ann G. Zauber, PhD; Carrie N. Klabunde, PhD; S. Luuk Goede, MSc; Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar, PhD; Marjolein van Ballegooijen, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Many Medicare beneficiaries undergo more intensive colonoscopy screening than recommended. Whether this is favorable for beneficiaries and efficient from a societal perspective is uncertain.

Objective  To determine whether more intensive colonoscopy screening than recommended is favorable for Medicare beneficiaries (ie, whether it results in a ...

Original Investigation 
Trevor J. Royce, MD, MS; Laura H. Hendrix, MS; William A. Stokes, MD; Ian M. Allen, MD, MPH; Ronald C. Chen, MD, MPH
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Routine cancer screening has unproven net benefit for patients with limited life expectancy.

Objective  To examine the patterns of prostate, breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening in the United States in individuals with different life expectancies.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Data from the population-based ...

Original Investigation 
Susan L. Mitchell, MD, MPH; Michele L. Shaffer, PhD; Mark B. Loeb, MD, MSc; Jane L. Givens, MD, MSCE; Daniel Habtemariam, BA; Dan K. Kiely, MPH, MA; Erika D’Agata, MD, MPH
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Infection management in advanced dementia has important implications for (1) providing high-quality care to patients near the end of life and (2) minimizing the public health threat posed by the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs).

Design, Setting, and Participants  Prospective cohort study of 362 residents ...

Perspective 
Rajat Kalra, MBChB; Ryan R. Kraemer, MD
Research Letter  FREE
Christine M. Cheng, PharmD; Jaekyu Shin, PharmD, MS; B. Joseph Guglielmo, PharmD
Includes: Supplemental Content
Boxed warnings describe potentially life-threatening risks associated with certain prescription drugs.1 The warnings are surrounded by a border or “box” in the drug label and may be present at the time of drug approval (ie, a premarket warning) or added during the postmarket period (ie, a postmarket warning). Despite the ...
A newly proposed US Food and Drug Administration guidance could undermine the agency's drug safety laws and regulations by allowing pharmaceutical companies to claim their drugs are less risky than stated in the approved label.
Editor's Note 
Joseph S. Ross, MD, MHS
Reconciling the results of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies remains a substantial challenge for clinical medicine. There are numerous examples of studies showing that therapies seemed effective, or perhaps conferred risk, when investigated by observational methods that were later contradicted by evidence from RCTs, and vice versa. A ...
Invited Commentary 
Alan H. B. Wu, PhD
I was coming home from a long work week at the hospital and thought of stopping by the video store to rent a copy of the latest Hollywood blockbuster video. I called my wife from my office telephone to tell her I’d be late. I wasn’t sure where the store ...
Research Letter 
Gautam R. Shroff, MBBS; Brooke M. Heubner, MS; Charles A. Herzog, MD
We examined temporal trends in the incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) among US Medicare beneficiaries.
Research Letter 
Helmut Schröder, PhD; Jordi Salas-Salvadó, MD, PhD; Miguel Angel Martínez-González, MD, PhD; Montserrat Fíto, MD, PhD; Dolores Corella, DPharm, PhD; Ramón Estruch, MD, PhD; Emilio Ros, MD, PhD
Lifestyle modification, particularly dietary changes, is the cornerstone of population-based strategies for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention.1 Recently the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) study,2 a 5-year randomized primary prevention trial (isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN35739639), showed a 30% reduction in incident CVD with Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) intervention in comparison with a control ...
Research Letter 
Jesse Theisen-Toupal, MD; Gary Horowitz, MD; Anthony Breu, MD
Since the United States began folic acid fortification in 1998, the prevalence of folate deficiency in the general population has decreased.1 Despite this, folate testing continues to be recommended for the evaluation of macrocytic anemia2,3 and is commonly performed to evaluate macrocytosis without anemia, normocytic anemia, dementia, delirium, and peripheral ...
Original Investigation 
Trisha F. Hue, PhD, MPH; Steven R. Cummings, MD; Jane A. Cauley, DrPH; Douglas C. Bauer, MD; Kristine E. Ensrud, MD; Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, MD; Dennis M. Black, PhD

Importance  Studies have shown that bisphosphonates may have antitumor and antimetastatic properties. Recently, observational studies have suggested a possible protective effect of bisphosphonates on breast cancer, but the effect of bisphosphonate use on risk of breast cancer has not been tested in randomized trials.

Objective  To ...

Original Investigation 
An Hong Tran, MD; Eunis Wai Man Ngor, MS; Bechien U. Wu, MD, MPH
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The risks and benefits of surveillance colonoscopy in elderly patients have not been well characterized.

Objective  To investigate the relative impact of surveillance colonoscopy in elderly patients compared with a reference cohort.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Retrospective cohort study from 2001 through 2010 of ...

Original Investigation 
Philippe Gabriel Steg, MD; Nicola Greenlaw, MSc; Michal Tendera, MD; Jean-Claude Tardif, MD; Roberto Ferrari, MD; Muayed Al-Zaibag, MD; Paul Dorian, MD; Dayi Hu, MD; Svetlana Shalnova, MD; Fernando José Sokn, MD; Ian Ford, PhD; Kim M. Fox, MD; for the Prospective Observational Longitudinal Registry of Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease (CLARIFY) Investigators
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  In the era of widespread revascularization and effective antianginals, the prevalence and prognostic effect of anginal symptoms and myocardial ischemia among patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) are unknown.

Objective  To describe the current clinical patterns among patients with stable CAD and the association ...

Perspective 
Bryan LeBude, MD; Gretchen Diemer, MD
Invited Commentary 
Gulshan Sharma, MD, MPH
Dr William Mason1 described the limitations of individual physician practice to provide the best care in the era of complex diagnostic and treatment algorithms in 1929. He explained medical consultation as a medium by which to secure ideas and the opinion of physicians with diverse medical expertise for patients segregated ...
Research Letter 
Vuyisile T. Nkomo, MD, MPH; Rakesh M. Suri, MD, DPhil; Sorin V. Pislaru, MD, PhD; Kevin L. Greason, MD; Verghese Mathew, MD; Charanjit S. Rihal, MD; Paul S. Mueller, MD, MPH
Severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, which can be reduced with surgical aortic valve replacement and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).1,2 However, patients who have these procedures may experience procedure-related morbidity (eg, stroke, vascular complications, and arrhythmia) and death.2 Thus, regardless of treatment ...
Original Investigation 
Csaba P. Kovesdy, MD; Jun L. Lu, MD; Miklos Z. Molnar, MD, PhD; Jennie Z. Ma, PhD; Robert B. Canada, MD; Elani Streja, PhD; Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, MD, MPH, PhD; Anthony J. Bleyer, MD, MS
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The effect of strict blood pressure control on clinical outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear.

Objective  To compare the outcomes associated with a treated systolic blood pressure (SBP) of less than 120 mm Hg vs those associated with the currently recommended ...

Original Investigation 
Lena M. Chen, MD, MS; Adam S. Wilk, BA; Jyothi R. Thumma, MPH; John D. Birkmeyer, MD; Mousumi Banerjee, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Payments around episodes of inpatient surgery vary widely among hospitals. As payers move toward bundled payments, understanding sources of variation, including use of medical consultants, is important.

Objective  To describe the use of medical consultations for hospitalized surgical patients, factors associated with use, and practice ...

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