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 Showing 1-20 of 95 Articles
Original Investigation 
Paul J. Christine, MPH; Amy H. Auchincloss, PhD; Alain G. Bertoni, MD, MPH; Mercedes R. Carnethon, PhD; Brisa N. Sánchez, PhD; Kari Moore, MS; Sara D. Adar, ScD; Tamara B. Horwich, MD, MS; Karol E. Watson, MD; Ana V. Diez Roux, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Neighborhood environments may influence the risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but, to our knowledge, no longitudinal study has evaluated specific neighborhood exposures.

Objective  To determine whether long-term exposures to neighborhood physical and social environments, including the availability of healthy food and physical ...

Invited Commentary: Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; Nancy E. Adler, PhD; Aric A. Prather, PhD
Original Investigation 
Nick Daneman, MD, MSc; Susan E. Bronskill, PhD; Andrea Gruneir, PhD; Alice M. Newman, MSc; Hadas D. Fischer, MD, MSC; Paula A. Rochon, MD, MPH; Geoffrey M. Anderson, MD, PhD; Chaim M. Bell, MD, PhD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Antibiotics are frequently and often inappropriately prescribed to patients in nursing homes. These antibiotics pose direct risks to recipients and indirect risks to others residing in the home.

Objective  To examine whether living in a nursing home with high antibiotic use is associated with an ...

Invited Commentary: Excessive Antibiotic Use in Nursing Homes; Lona Mody, MD, MSc; Christopher Crnich, MD, PhD
Original Investigation 
Danilo Di Bona, MD, PhD; Antonella Plaia, PhD; Maria Stefania Leto-Barone, MD, PhD; Simona La Piana, MD; Gabriele Di Lorenzo, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (SARC) have shown a modest clinical benefit compared with placebo. Furthermore, indirect comparison by meta-analyses showed that subcutaneous immunotherapy is more effective than SLIT. Despite these data, SLIT has ...

Editor's Note: Caveat Emptor on Sublingual Immunotherapy; Patrick G. O’Malley, MD, MPH
Invited Commentary 
Nancy E. Adler, PhD; Aric A. Prather, PhD

Unprecedented increases in obesity in the United States have contributed to greater prevalence of diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which impair the quality of life and reduce the longevity of affected individuals, create demands on already-strained health care delivery systems, and generate greater health care ...

Invited Commentary 
Lona Mody, MD, MSc; Christopher Crnich, MD, PhD

In the United States, on any given day, approximately 1.4 million people reside in more than 15 000 nursing homes (NHs).1 As a testament to the burgeoning post–acute care population, approximately 3.3 million Medicare recipients are admitted to NHs for short stays each year, making NHs a crucial ...

Editor's Note 
Patrick G. O’Malley, MD, MPH

The synthesis of clinical trials of sublingual immunotherapy for grass pollen allergy by Di Bona et al1 in this issue indicates an unimpressive small effect, and the efficacy is even smaller in the United States compared with European populations. However, what was impressive is the 70.0% (1817 ...

Research Letter 
Rebecca Smith-Bindman, MD; Michelle Moghadassi, MPH; Richard T. Griffey, MD, MPH; Carlos A. Camargo Jr, MD, DrPH; John Bailitz, MD; Michael Beland, MD; Diana L. Miglioretti, PhD

This study reports that few computed tomographic examinations use an appropriately low dose of radiation among adults with suspected urolithiasis.

Research Letter 
Matthew J. Maurice, MD; Robert Abouassaly, MD, MS; Simon P. Kim, MD, MPH; Hui Zhu, MD, ScD

This study examined the use of active surveillance and its predictors in prostate cancer treatment, finding that its use is low and should increase to reduce the overtreatment of screening-detected prostate cancer.

Renu Mansukhani, MD

As I sat down for my visit with dad, I turned on my cell phone’s voice recorder. He did not notice. I did not want him to know that I was doing it because I did not want him to realize that I was starting to treat every ...

Original Investigation 
Leslee L. Subak, MD; Wendy C. King, PhD; Steven H. Belle, PhD, MScHyg; Jia-Yuh Chen, MS; Anita P. Courcoulas, MD, MPH; Faith E. Ebel, RD, MS, MPH; David R. Flum, MD, MPH; Saurabh Khandelwal, MD; John R. Pender, MD; Sheila K. Pierson, BS; Walter J. Pories, MD; Kristine J. Steffen, PharmD, PhD; Gladys W. Strain, PhD; Bruce M. Wolfe, MD; Alison J. Huang, MD, MAS
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Among women and men with severe obesity, evidence for improvement in urinary incontinence beyond the first year after bariatric surgery–induced weight loss is lacking.

Objectives  To examine change in urinary incontinence before and after bariatric surgery and to identify factors associated with improvement and remission ...

Invited Commentary: Bariatric Surgery and Urinary Incontinence; Deborah L. Myers, MD
Original Investigation 
Zian H. Tseng, MD, MAS; Robert M. Hayward, MD; Nina M. Clark, BS; Christopher G. Mulvanny, MS; Benjamin J. Colburn, BA, BS; Philip C. Ursell, MD; Jeffrey E. Olgin, MD; Amy P. Hart, MD; Ellen Moffatt, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Interrogations and autopsies of sudden deaths with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are rarely performed. Therefore, causes of sudden deaths with these devices and the incidence of device failure are unknown.

Objective  To determine causes of death in individuals with CIEDs in a prospective autopsy ...

Editor's Note: Strengthening Medical Device Postmarket Safety Surveillance; Joseph S. Ross, MD, MHS
Original Investigation 
Elizabeth A. Regan, MD; David A. Lynch, MD; Douglas Curran-Everett, PhD; Jeffrey L. Curtis, MD; John H. M. Austin, MD; Philippe A. Grenier, MD; Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, MD; William C. Bailey, MD; Dawn L. DeMeo, MD; Richard H. Casaburi, PhD, MD; Paul Friedman, MD; Edwin J. R. Van Beek, MD; John E. Hokanson, PhD; Russell P. Bowler, MD; Terri H. Beaty, PhD; George R. Washko, MD; MeiLan K. Han, MD; Victor Kim, MD; Song Soo Kim, MD; Kunihiro Yagihashi, MD; Lacey Washington, MD; Charlene E. McEvoy, MD; Clint Tanner, MD; David M. Mannino, MD; Barry J. Make, MD; Edwin K. Silverman, MD; James D. Crapo, MD; for the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) Investigators
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  Airflow obstruction on spirometry is universally used to define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and current or former smokers without airflow obstruction may assume that they are disease free.

Objective  To identify clinical and radiologic evidence of smoking-related disease in a cohort of current and ...

Original Investigation 
Vinay Prasad, MD, MPH; Chul Kim, MD, MPH; Mauricio Burotto, MD; Andrae Vandross, MD
Includes: Supplemental Content

Importance  The strength of association between surrogate end points and survival in oncology is important to understand because surrogate end points are frequently used in oncology clinical trials, supporting US Food and Drug Administration approvals and National Comprehensive Cancer Network guideline recommendations.

Objective  To identify and ...

Editor's Note: Faster Drug Approvals Not Always Better, Can Be Worse; Rita F. Redberg, MD, MSc
Invited Commentary 
Deborah L. Myers, MD

About one-quarter of adults in the United States are obese.1 Among its myriad adverse effects on health, obesity affects the support and function of the pelvic floor. As obesity increases, the pelvic floor disorders of urinary incontinence, anal incontinence, and (for women) pelvic organ prolapse become more ...

Editor's Note 
Joseph S. Ross, MD, MHS

The system by which the US Food and Drug Administration engages in medical device postmarket safety surveillance needs strengthening.14 Efforts are limited by reliance on passively aggregated adverse events through the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database, investigated adverse events at select clinical ...

Editor's Note 
Rita F. Redberg, MD, MSc

A shared goal of all health professionals is to relieve suffering and prolong life. At times these goals are at odds, particularly in oncology care. Patients with severe disease and low chance of survival may be offered therapies in the hope of buying a few more weeks or ...

Research Letter 
Lin Yang, PhD; Graham A. Colditz, MD, DrPH

Overweight and obesity are associated with various chronic conditions.1 These conditions are considerable health care and societal burdens, yet could potentially be averted by preventing weight gain and obesity. In a prior analysis, now almost 20 years old, Must et al2 used a nationally representative data ...

Research Letter 
Kush R. Desai, MD; Robert J. Lewandowski, MD; Riad Salem, MD, MBA; Samdeep K. Mouli, MD; Jennifer K. Karp, RN; James L. Laws, BS; Robert K. Ryu, MD

This single-center review reports that retrieval of inferior vena cava filters after a prolonged dwell time has a high rate of safety and success in patients at risk for pulmonary embolism.

Anton Travis Manasco, MD; Judith A. Linden, MD

Her name was Claire. She resided in a local nursing home and had advanced dementia, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. She was nonverbal from multiple prior cerebrovascular accidents and her worsening dementia. When I opened her medical record, an orange Do Not Resuscitate/Intubate sheet shined through ...

Teachable Moment 
Sarah M. Kuhn, MD; Ruchi Jain, DO; Kristi M. Moore, MD

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