Financial Disclosure: With the exception of Dr Konstam, all authors were previously consultants at the request of plaintiffs in litigation against Merck and Co Inc related to rofecoxib in the United States. Dr Madigan was previously a consultant at the request of plaintiffs in litigation against Merck related to rofecoxib in Australia and against Pfizer Inc related to celecoxib in the United States. Dr Egilman is currently a consultant at the request of plaintiffs in litigation against Pfizer Inc related to gabapentin in the United States. Over the past 5 years, Dr Madigan has been a consultant to Pfizer, Wyeth, Sanofi-Aventis, and Takeda and currently serves on the clinical review team of iGuard.org. Dr Konstam has been a consultant to Merck, including work related to rofecoxib, as well as to AstraZeneca, Novartis, Sanofi, Biogen, Otsuka, Cardiokine, J&J, Pfizer, and Trevena. Dr Krumholz has had research contracts with the American College of Cardiology and the Colorado Foundation for Medical Care, has previously served on the advisory boards of Alere and Amgen, and currently serves on an advisory board with UnitedHealthcare, is a scientific advisor for Centegen, has been a subject expert for VHA Inc, has received speakers' compensation from the American College of Cardiology, and is editor-in-chief of Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes and Journal Watch Cardiology of the Massachusetts Medical Society.