Commentary |

A Road Map to Control Malaria, Tuberculosis, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS

Thomas R. Frieden, MD, MPH; Awash Teklehaimanot, PhD, MPH; Sekai Chideya, MD, MPH; Paul Farmer, MD, PhD; Jim Y. Kim, MD, PhD; Mario C. Raviglione, MD
Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(18):1650-1652. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.309.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


Although preventable and treatable, malaria, tuberculosis (TB), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) together kill more than 5 million people annually. The burden of these diseases can be reduced—but only with increased governmental and nongovernmental resources, effective public-private partnerships, and strengthened disease-specific and general health systems.

Lopez  ADMathers  CDEzzati  MJamison  DTMurray  CJ Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data. Lancet 2006;367 (9524) 1747- 1757
World Health Organization, Global Malaria Program Surveillance, Monitoring, and Evaluation Unit, Impact of long-lasting insecticidal-treated nets (LLINs) and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) measured using surveillance data, in four African countries: preliminary report based on four country visits: 31 January 2008. http://www.who.int/malaria/docs/ReportGFImpactMalaria.pdf. Accessed June 29, 2008
Raviglione  MCPio  A Evolution of WHO policies for tuberculosis control, 1948-2001. Lancet 2002;359 (9308) 775- 780
Lopez  ADedMathers  CDedEzzati  MedJamison  DTedMurray  CJLed Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors.  Washington, DC World Bank and Oxford University Press2006;8
Raviglione  MCUplekar  M WHO's new Stop TB Strategy. Lancet 2006;367 (9514) 952- 955
Dye  COttmani  SLaasri  LBencheikh  N The decline of tuberculosis epidemics under chemotherapy: a case study in Morocco. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2007;11 (11) 1225- 1231
World Health Organization, Global tuberculosis control 2009: epidemiology, strategy, financing. World Health Organization Web site. http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/2009/en/index.html. Accessed August 14, 2009
Lönnroth  KRaviglione  M Global epidemiology of tuberculosis: prospects for control. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2008;29 (5) 481- 491
Badri  MWilson  DWood  R Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on incidence of tuberculosis in South Africa: a cohort study. Lancet 2002;359 (9323) 2059- 2064
De Cock  KMDe Lay  P HIV/AIDS estimates and the quest for universal access. Lancet 2008;371 (9630) 2068- 2070
Cleland  JAli  MM Sexual abstinence, contraception, and condom use by young African women: a secondary analysis of survey data. Lancet 2006;368 (9549) 1788- 1793
UNICEF, UNAIDS, WHO and UNFPA: children and AIDS: Third Stocktaking Report, New York, 2008. http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/CATSR_EN_11202008.pdf. Accessed June 3, 2009
Williams  BGLloyd-Smith  JOGouws  E  et al.  The potential impact of male circumcision on HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS Med 2006;3 (7) e262
Green  ECHalperin  DTNantulya  VHogle  JA Uganda's HIV prevention success: the role of sexual behavior change and the national response. AIDS Behav 2006;10 (4) 335- 346
Harries  ADLibamba  ESchouten  EJMwansambo  ASalaniponi  FMMpazanje  R Expanding antiretroviral therapy in Malawi: drawing on the country's experience with tuberculosis. BMJ 2004;329 (7475) 1163- 1166

Sign In to Access Full Content

Don't have Access?

Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more

Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features

Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)

Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview





Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Submit a Comment


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Web of Science® Times Cited: 2

Sign In to Access Full Content

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Topics
PubMed Articles