Study quality characteristics are presented in Table 1 and Table 2. The included studies consisted of 18 prospective cohort,11- 12,14- 16,18- 19,21- 22,24,26,28,30- 31,34- 37 2 retrospective cohort,20,33 and 3 case-control9- 10,25 studies. Consecutive patients were enrolled in 13 of the 18 prospective cohort studies (patient accrual was not specified in the other 5) and in all 3 case-control studies. Nine studies10- 11,14,25,30- 31,34- 35,37 followed patients during their ICU stay, 4 studies followed patients until hospital discharge,16,19,22,24 and 6 studies did not report these data. Two studies had a longer follow-up: one recorded mortality at 1 month, 6 months (these data were used in the mortality analysis), and 2 years,11 and another study evaluated mortality at 6 months.14 Seven studies measured cTn once during the patient's ICU stay, and 15 studies measured cTn repeatedly using different screening schedules (testing frequency not specified in 1 study). Cardiac troponin was frequently measured at 24-hour intervals, with 4 studies measuring daily cTn until the patient was discharged from the ICU.11,25,30- 31 Nine studies used multivariable analyses to adjust for confounding variables when evaluating the relationship between cTn and mortality.