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Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1917;XX(1):103-111. doi:10.1001/archinte.1917.00090010118008.
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I. REFRACTOMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF THE SERUM  Refractometric investigation of the blood was carried out for the first time by Strubell1 in 1900. He considered the procedure available for measuring the osmotic pressure of the blood, but Reiss,2 after two years' thorough study of the subject (1901-1902), found that the refractive index bears no relation to osmotic pressure, but that refractometric estimation is practically equivalent to a quantitative determination of protein in the blood. To prove that such a relation exists, Reiss cited a table of results of Vaucher,3 in which he compared the figures obtained by refraction with those obtained by weighing the proteins.According to Reiss, the quantity of nonprotein substances in the blood shows no remarkable variation, although the contrary is generally believed to be true. The freezing point of the blood, for example, is normally 0.56 C., and even in extreme cases it does not fall below


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