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Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1915;XV(4):581-607. doi:10.1001/archinte.1915.00070220083009.
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PART I.—DUODENAL CONTENT ANALYSES AS AN INDEX OF DISEASE, AND FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY OF THE PANCREAS  A reliable method for ascertaining the functional activity of the pancreas, has been eagerly sought for the last few decades, in fact since the time that Kuntzman, Richard Bright and Claude Bernard first called attention to this gland as a possible focus of disease.The large variety of tests offered, some ten to twenty in number, is in itself testimony to the fact that no one test has met the mark or has satisfied the rigorous requirements of both pathologist and clinician. These tests fall into three groups: tests of the external secretion of the pancreas, usually carried out on the stool (Fuld-Gross), the urine (Wolgemuth), or gastric contents (Volhard oil test) ; tests of the internal secretion, consisting of tests for glycosuria, the Cammidge reaction, the Loewi pupillary dilatation test, etc.; and finally metab


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