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Causes of Death in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in São Paulo, Brazil: A Study of 113 Autopsies

Sylvia M. Iriya, MD; Vera L. Capelozzi, MD; Isídio Calich, MD; Milton A. Martins, MD; Arnaldo Lichtenstein, MD
Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(12):1557. doi:.
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The mortality of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) decreased between 1954 and 1974 from 50% survival over 4 years to more than 90% survival over 10 years.1 However, these rates have since remained unchanged.

Halberg  P Survival and causes of death in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Rheumatol. 1991;10367- 368
Iliopoulos  AGTsokos  GC Immunopathogenesis and spectrum of infections in systemic lupus erythematosus. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1996;25318- 336
Petri  M Infection in systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1998;24423- 456
Hellmann  DBPetri  MWhiting-O'Keefe  Q Fatal infections in systemic lupus erythematosus: the role of opportunistic organisms. Medicine (Baltimore). 1987;66341- 348
Tan  EMCohen  ASFries  JF The 1982 revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Arthritis Rheum. 1982;251271- 1277

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