The suicide rate was 32 per 100 000 patient-years. In Table 1, demographic, clinical, and toxicologic information of suicides are listed. Mean age (at the time of the hospital admission) of the patients who committed suicide was 45 (SD, 15; range 20-72). Five younger than 45 years of age, 6 were 45 and older. There were 6 men and 5 women, 7 white and 4 black. Seven patients committed suicide within 6 months after being in the hospital. Among suicides, 8 (73%) of 11 were diagnosed with depression, substance use disorder, or both. Other diagnoses were schizophrenia (n = 1), atypical psychosis (n = 1), and bipolar disorder (n = 1). These were comorbid with depression or substance use disorder. No disorders were found in 3 cases. Four suicides were positive for alcohol, cocaine, and/or cannabis. All 4 were diagnosed with substance use disorder in the chart review at the last hospital admission. Diagnostic rates of depression and substance use disorders were compared between patients who committed suicide and controls (data not shown). Depression and/or substance use disorders were found in 8 (73%) of 11 cases vs 11 (33%) of 33 controls (P<.05, Fisher exact test). Substance use disorders were the most frequent diagnosis in suicides (6 [54%] of 11 suicides). Depression was detected in 4 (36%) of 11 suicides. Two patients were diagnosed with both disorders. Findings were similar across age, sex, and race, except that depression was found more often in female suicides than substance abuse (40% vs 20%). Only 1 of 44 subjects (both cases and controls) was referred for psychiatric consultation.