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Alcohol and Cardiovascular Mortality in US Physicians: Is There a Modifier Effect by Low-Density Lipoprotein?

Enas A. Enas, MD
Arch Intern Med. 1997;157(15):1769-1770. doi:10.1001/archinte.1997.00440360215026.
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The well-known French paradox and the little-known Danish paradox are 2 clear examples of the low rates of cardiovascular (CVD) mortality in populations that consume a high-fat diet; these paradoxes are thought to be a result of high intakes of alcohol in France and Denmark. The French, world-renowned for their gourmet wining and dining, have the lowest rates of CVD mortality among the industrialized countries—about one fourth that of England, which is barely 100 miles away from France.1 When compared with the French, Danes consume even more animal fat (42% more), but less alcohol. The CVD rates in Denmark and the United States are similar, although the consumption of animal fat is 60% higher in Denmark than in the United States.1 An insight into the biological mechanism underlying these paradoxes was recently provided by the Copenhagen Male Study of 2826 men aged 53 to 74 years.2 The alcoholic beverage


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