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Association of Gender and Survival in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction

Charles Maynard, PhD; Nathan R. Every, MD, MPH; Jenny S. Martin, RN; Peter J. Kudenchuk, MD; W. Douglas Weaver, MD
Arch Intern Med. 1997;157(12):1379-1384. doi:10.1001/archinte.1997.00440330123014.
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Background:  During the last 5 years, many studies have produced conflicting results concerning the survival of women hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

Objective:  To determine if gender is associated with hospital mortality and long-term survival in individuals with AMI.

Methods:  This prospective study included 4255 consecutive women (34%) and 8076 (66%) men who developed AMI in 19 Seattle, Wash, area hospitals between January 1988 and June 1994. Key information was abstracted from hospital records and entered in the Myocardial Infarction Triage and Intervention registry database. In addition, data concerning survival and rehospitalization were obtained from the state of Washington and linked to the Myocardial Infarction Triage and Intervention registry.

Results:  In comparison with men, women were 8 years older, more often had history of congestive heart failure, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus, and less often had history of myocardial infarction or coronary surgery. During hospitalization, women were less likely to undergo coronary angiography, thrombolytic therapy, coronary angioplasty, or bypass surgery. After adjustment for covariates, women were 20% more likely to die in the hospital (odds ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.39), yet long-term survival was similar in the 2 groups (hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-1.05). The use of thrombolytic therapy or revascularization during the index hospitalization did not change the association between gender and survival.

Conclusions:  All things being equal, women with AMI were more likely to die in the hospital, yet survival after hospital discharge did not differ according to gender. Appropriate treatment to reduce hospital mortality in women is needed.Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:1379-1384


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