0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
ARTICLE |

Hyperglycemic Crises in Urban Blacks

Guillermo E. Umpierrez, MD; Jason P. Kelly; Jose E. Navarrete, MD; Mary M. C. Casals, MD; Abbas E. Kitabchi, PhD, MD
Arch Intern Med. 1997;157(6):669-675. doi:10.1001/archinte.1997.00440270117011.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Background:  The hospital admission and mortality rates of patients with diabetic emergencies, such as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS), are higher in black patients than in white patients with diabetes. However, there is limited data describing the precipitating events and response to treatment in black patients. Analysis of their clinical characteristics and response to medical therapy is needed to evaluate the impact of programs designed to reduce the development of these acute metabolic complications.

Methods:  A prospective evaluation was conducted of 144 consecutive patients with DKA and 23 patients with HHNS admitted to a large inner-city hospital between July 1993 and October 1994.

Results:  In patients previously diagnosed as having diabetes, poor compliance with insulin therapy was the major precipitating cause for DKA (49%) and HHNS (42%). Alcohol or cocaine abuse was a contributing factor for noncompliance and was present in 35% and 13% of patients with DKA and in 44% and 9% of patients with HHNS, respectively. Newly diagnosed diabetes accounted for 17% of patients with DKA and HHNS. Obesity (body mass index >28 kg/m2 [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters] ) was present in 29% of patients with DKA and in 17% with HHNS and was most common in patients with DKA who were newly diagnosed as having diabetes (56%). Patients were treated by residents, who used a low-dose insulin protocol with an algorithm for insulin adjustment in 88 of 144 patients with DKA and 14 of 23 patients with HHNS. Although there was no difference in mortality rates or time needed to correct hyperglycemia or ketoacidosis, the use of the protocol significantly reduced the risk of hypoglycemia (5%) compared with patients treated without a protocol (23%) (P<.01).

Conclusions:  In urban black patients, poor compliance with insulin therapy was the main precipitating cause of acute metabolic decompensation, and substance abuse was a significant contributing factor for noncompliance. Obesity is common in black patients with DKA; it was present in more than half of those with newly diagnosed diabetes. Improved patient education and better access to medical care might reduce the development of these hyperglycemic emergencies.Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:669-675.

Topics

Sign in

Create a free personal account to sign up for alerts, share articles, and more.

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

Figures

Tables

References

Correspondence

CME
Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Submit a Comment

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Web of Science® Times Cited: 98

Sign in

Create a free personal account to sign up for alerts, share articles, and more.

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Jobs
brightcove.createExperiences();