We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......

Effects of Weight Loss and Sodium Reduction Intervention on Blood Pressure and Hypertension Incidence in Overweight People With High-Normal Blood Pressure:  The Trials of Hypertension Prevention, Phase II

Arch Intern Med. 1997;157(6):657-667. doi:10.1001/archinte.1997.00440270105009.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Objective:  To provide a firmer basis for preventing high blood pressure (BP), we tested interventions to promote weight loss, dietary sodium reduction, and their combination for lowering diastolic BP, systolic BP, and the incidence of hypertension during a 3- to 4-year period.

Methods:  We conducted a randomized, 2X2 factorial, clinical trial, with BP levels measured by blinded observers. Nine academic medical centers recruited 2382 men and women (age range, 30-54 years) not taking antihypertensive drugs, with a diastolic BP of 83 to 89 mm Hg, a systolic BP lower than 140 mm Hg, and a body mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) representing 110% to 165% of desirable body weight. Counseling aimed at helping participants achieve their desirable weight or a 4.5-kg or more weight reduction (in the weight loss and combined groups) and/or sodium intake of 80 mmol/d (in the sodium reduction and combined groups) was provided.

Results:  From baseline, participants' weight decreased by 4.3 to 4.5 kg at 6 months and by approximately 2 kg at 36 months in the weight loss and combined groups compared with weight changes in the usual care group (all groups, P<.001). Sodium excretion decreased 50 and 40 mmol/d at 6 and 36 months, respectively, in the sodium reduction group and about 15 mmol/d less at each time point in the combined group compared with the usual care group (all groups, P<.01). Compared with the usual care group, BP decreased 3.7/2.7 mm Hg in the weight loss group, 2.9/1.6 mm Hg in the sodium reduction group, and 4.0/2.8 mm Hg in the combined group at 6 months (all groups, P<.001). At 36 months, BP decreases remained greater in the active intervention groups than in the usual care group (weight loss group, 1.3/0.9 mm Hg; sodium reduction group, 1.2/0.7 mm Hg; combined group, 1.1/0.6 mm Hg). Differences were statistically significant for systolic and diastolic BP in the weight loss group and for systolic BP in the sodium reduction group. Through 48 months, the incidence of hypertension (BP ≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic or the use of antihypertensive drugs) was significantly less in each active intervention group than the usual care group (average relative risks, 0.78-0.82).

Conclusions:  In overweight adults with high-normal BP, weight loss and reduction in sodium intake, individually and in combination, were effective in lowering systolic and diastolic BP, especially in the short-term (6 months). Although the effects on average BP declined over time, reductions in hypertension incidence were achieved.Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:657-667


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal





Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Submit a Comment


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Web of Science® Times Cited: 388

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.