0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
ARTICLE |

Instability of Delayed-type Hypersensitivity Skin Test Anergy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

Waleska T. Caiaffa, MD, MPH, ScD; Neil M. H. Graham, MB, BS, MD, MPH; Noya Galai, PhD; Rosetta T. Rizzo, RN, MMS; Kenrad E. Nelson, MD; David Vlahov, PhD
Arch Intern Med. 1995;155(19):2111-2117. doi:10.1001/archinte.1995.00430190107015.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Objective:  To evaluate stability of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test over time in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)—seropositive and HIV-seronegative injecting drug users.

Method:  A community-based cohort of injecting drug users who had serial skin testing with purified protein derivative tuberculin, mumps, and Candida albicans antigen. Delayed-type hypersensitivity anergy was defined as a skin test result of less than 3 mm for all three antigens; DTH positivity was a skin test result of 3 mm or greater for at least one antigen (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga, 1993).

Results:  At baseline, 36% of HIV-seropositive subjects (n=401) were anergic as compared with 14% of HIV-seronegative subjects (n=552; P<.001). During follow-up, fewer HIV-seropositive subjects remained DTH positive (42%) and more remained anergic (19%) than of HIV-seronegative subjects (67% and 7%, respectively). Twenty-four percent of HIV-seropositive subjects who were initially DTH positive became anergic as compared with 15.3% of the HIV-seronegative subjects. However, the proportion changing from anergy to DTH positivity was greater among HIV-seropositive subjects (15%) than HIV-seronegative subjects (12%). In comparison to those who remained DTH positive, HIV-seropositive subjects with CD4 cell counts of less than 0.50×109/L (odds ratio=6.4) and less than 0.35×109/L (odds ratio=11.2) were more likely to remain anergic than those who had CD4 cell counts above 0.50×109/L or were HIV seronegative.

Conclusions:  Although the prevalence and incidence of DTH anergy were higher in HIV-seropositive subjects, high rates of change in DTH status occurred in both directions. This suggests that instability of DTH skin testing is substantial and only partially dependent on HIV status. Although a single test may be an unreliable indicator of HIV-induced immunosuppression, two consecutive anergic readings were strongly associated with a CD4 cell count below 0.50×109/L and particularly below 0.35×109/L. For determining false negativity of tuberculin tests, persistent DTH anergy is more reliable than a single test among HIV-seropositive injecting drug users. Anergy testing appears to be unnecessary with CD4 cell counts greater than 0.50×109/L.(Arch Intern Med. 1995;155:2111-2117)

Topics

Sign in

Create a free personal account to sign up for alerts, share articles, and more.

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview

Figures

Tables

References

Correspondence

CME
Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Submit a Comment

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Web of Science® Times Cited: 39

Sign in

Create a free personal account to sign up for alerts, share articles, and more.

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Jobs
brightcove.createExperiences();