We describe two human immunodeficiency virus—negative patients who developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) during immunosuppressive therapy for antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody—positive vasculitis and review the literature regarding the pathogenesis and frequency of PCP. The recent application of DNA amplification techniques suggests that PCP developing in immunocompromised individuals does not necessarily result from reactivation of a dormant focus, but may arise as de novo infection after exposure to an exogenous source of P carinii. In addition, several reports about clusters of PCP cases raise concern about the risk of a nosocomial transmission of P carinii. Therefore, PCP should be added to the list of bronchopulmonary complications in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody—positive vasculitis who are receiving long-term steroid therapy.
(Arch Intern Med. 1995;155:872-874)