We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

Risk Factors for Repeatedly Reactive HIV-1 EIA and Indeterminate Western Blots A Population-Based Case-Control Study

Connie L. Celum, MD, MPH; Robert W. Coombs, MD, PhD; Margie Jones, MA; Victory Murphy, ARNP; Lloyd Fisher, PhD; Christopher Grant, PhD, DSc; Lawrence Corey, MD; Thomas Inui, ScM, MD; Mark H. Wener, MD; King K. Holmes, MD, PhD
Arch Intern Med. 1994;154(10):1129-1137. doi:10.1001/archinte.1994.00420100115015.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


Objective:  Causes of indeterminate results of Western blot testing (IWB) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 include seroconversion, HIV-2 cross-reactivity, and autoimmune disease, but most IWB results remain unexplained. This case-control study assessed risk factors for IWB results, including early HIV infection, other retroviral infection, autoantibodies, and other medical conditions.

Design:  Prospective study to determine HIV seroconversion rate, with a case-control design to assess other risk factors for IWB. Cases (persons with one or more repeatedly reactive HIV-1 enzyme immunoassay with IWB), their current sexual partners, and controls (persons with negative enzyme immunoassay and Western blot results) were recruited from blood banks, health department and prenatal clinics, and private providers in Washington and Oregon.

Results:  Of 244 cases enrolled, 206 were followed up for 6 months or longer, and six (3.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7% to 5.3%) with recent HIV risk behaviors seroconverted. The Western blot banding patterns differed among groups; cases usually had p17 or p24 bands, while controls and cases' sexual partners usually had polymerase bands. Conditional logistic regression indicated that independent risk factors for IWB among male cases and controls were a tetanus booster in the past 2 years (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.2 to 8.6) and sexual contact with a prostitute (odds ratio, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.0 to 9.5). Independent risk factors for women were parity (odds ratio, 1.2;95%CI, 1.02 to 1.4) and autoantibodies, either rheumatoid factor or antinuclear antibodies (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.03 to 5.6). No cross-reactivity was detected with HIV-2, human T-lymphotrophic virus type 1, feline immunodeficiency or feline leukemia, or bovine immunodeficiency viruses.

Conclusions:  Evaluation of persons with reactive HIV-1 enzyme immunoassays and IWB should include an assessment of HIV risk and other possible risk factors, such as alloimmunization (ie, parity or recent immunization) or autoantibodies (ie, antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor). The relationship of IWB among men who reported sex with prostitutes is intriguing and warrants further study.(Arch Intern Med. 1994;154:1129-1137)


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?





Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

45 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.