Traditional methods of measuring the impact and cost of influenza virus have focused on epidemic years and morbidity and mortality due to pneumonia and influenza.
Annualized age-sex-race adjusted rates of hospitalization for pneumonia and influenza and other diagnoses among elderly Medicare beneficiaries during the epidemic influenza season of 1989 to 1990 and the nonepidemic season of 1990 to 1991 were compared with an interim period in 1990 without influenza virus circulation.
The rates of hospitalization for pneumonia and influenza, acute bronchitis, chronic respiratory disease, and congestive heart failure were significantly greater during each influenza period compared with the interim period. The highest rates were found in the epidemic season of 1989 to 1990. The amount reimbursed by Medicare to hospitals for the treatment of excess hospitalizations during periods of influenza activity was more than $1 billion in 1989 to 1990 and almost $750 million in 1990 to 1991.
Measures of the impact and cost of influenza in elderly Americans should include all of the diagnoses listed above and should recognize that the impact of influenza virus is significant even in nonepidemic years. There are great opportunities for cost savings if effective control programs are implemented.(Arch Intern Med. 1993;153:2105-2111)
Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more
Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features
Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)
Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours
Thank you for submitting a comment on this article. It will be reviewed by JAMA Internal Medicine editors. You will be notified when your comment has been published. Comments should not exceed 500 words of text and 10 references.
Do not submit personal medical questions or information that could identify a specific patient, questions about a particular case, or general inquiries to an author. Only content that has not been published, posted, or submitted elsewhere should be submitted. By submitting this Comment, you and any coauthors transfer copyright to the journal if your Comment is posted.
* = Required Field
Disclosure of Any Conflicts of Interest*
Indicate all relevant conflicts of interest of each author below, including all relevant financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including, but not limited to, employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speakers’ bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued. If all authors have none, check "No potential conflicts or relevant financial interests" in the box below. Please also indicate any funding received in support of this work. The information will be posted with your response.
Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.
Download citation file:
Web of Science® Times Cited: 111
Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.
More Listings atJAMACareerCenter.com >
and access these and other features:
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a link to reset your password.
Enter your username and email address. We'll send instructions on how to reset your password to the email address we have on record.
Athens and Shibboleth are access management services that provide single sign-on to protected resources. They replace the multiple user names and passwords necessary to access subscription-based content with a single user name and password that can be entered once per session. It operates independently of a user's location or IP address. If your institution uses Athens or Shibboleth authentication, please contact your site administrator to receive your user name and password.