The Prevalence of Metoclopramide-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia and Acute Extrapyramidal Movement Disorders

Linda Ganzini, MD; Daniel E. Casey, MD; William F. Hoffman, PhD, MD; Anthony L. McCall, MD, PhD
Arch Intern Med. 1993;153(12):1469-1475. doi:10.1001/archinte.1993.00410120051007.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Background:  Metoclopramide hydrochloride, a neuroleptic dopamine receptor antagonist used to treat gastric ailments, is reported to cause extrapyramidal movement disorders. The goals of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence and severity of tardive dyskinesia and acute extrapyramidal movement syndromes including akathisia, acute dystonia, and drug-induced parkinsonism in metoclopramide-treated patients and (2) to compare the prevalence and severity of tardive dyskinesia in metoclopramide-treated diabetics and nondiabetics.

Methods:  From a list of metoclopramide-treated patients received from the Portland (Ore) Veterans Affairs Medical Center pharmacy, 53 patients met inclusion criteria and 51 (96%) agreed to participate. Controls consisted of a convenience sample drawn from the Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center Outpatient Clinic who were matched to subjects on age (±10 years), gender, and presence or absence of diabetes. Of 61 potential controls contacted, 51 (84%) agreed to participate. Metoclopramide-treated subjects and controls were seen by a rater who was "blind" to all diagnoses and treatments. The rater performed a standardized examination used to elicit signs and symptoms of tardive dyskinesia and acute extrapyramidal movement syndromes.

Results:  The relative risk for tardive dyskinesia was 1.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.93 to 2.97), and the relative risk for drug-induced parkinsonism was 4.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 10.5). Metoclopramide-treated patients had significantly greater severity of tardive dyskinesia, drug-induced parkinsonism, and subjective akathisia than controls. Use of metoclopramide was associated with impairment in ambulation and increased use of benzodiazepines. Metoclopramidetreated diabetics had significantly greater severity of tardive dyskinesia than metoclopramide-treated nondiabetics.

Conclusions:  Metoclopramide use is associated with a significantly increased prevalence and severity of several extrapyramidal movement disorders.(Arch Intern Med. 1993;153:1469-1475)


Sign In to Access Full Content

Don't have Access?

Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more

Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features

Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)

Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours





Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Submit a Comment


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Web of Science® Times Cited: 101

Sign In to Access Full Content

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.