0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
ARTICLE |

Total Serum Cholesterol Levels and Mortality Risk as a Function of Age:  A Report Based on the Framingham Data

Richard A. Kronmal, PhD; Kevin C. Cain, PhD; Zhan Ye, MD; Gilbert S. Omenn, MD, PhD
Arch Intern Med. 1993;153(9):1065-1073. doi:10.1001/archinte.1993.00410090025004.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Objective:  To evaluate the relationship between serum cholesterol level and all-cause, coronary heart disease (CHD), and non-CHD mortality as a function of age.

Methods:  The data source was the biennial examination data from 1948 through 1980 for the 5209 men and women enrolled in the Framingham Heart Study. Age-specific analyses by the Cox proportional hazards regression model were performed of survival subsequent to ages 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 years for all subjects enrolled and alive at each of the stated ages. Complementary models were studied that used high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or total cholesterol level as predictors of survival subsequent to the examination at which lipoprotein subfractions were determined (1968 through 1973).

Results:  The relationship between total cholesterol level and all-cause mortality was positive (ie, higher cholesterol level associated with higher mortality) at age 40 years, negative at age 80 years, and negligible at ages 50 to 70 years. The relationship with CHD mortality was significantly positive at ages 40, 50, and 60 years but attenuated with age until the relationship was positive, but not significant, at age 70 years and negative, but not significant, at age 80 years. Results for the relationship between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and mortality help explain these findings.Non-CHD mortality was significantly negatively related to cholesterol level for ages 50 years and above. The negative results in the oldest age group for all-cause and CHD mortality appeared to be due to a negative relationship with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels rather than the protective effect of high high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Similar results from several modified analyses make low cholesterol level due to severe illness an unlikely explanation for our results.

Conclusions:  Physicians should be cautious about initiating cholesterol-lowering treatment in men and women above 65 to 70 years of age. Only randomized clinical trials in older people can settle the debate over the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of lipid-lowering interventions for reducing mortality and morbidity in this population.(Arch Intern Med. 1993;153:1065-1073)

Topics

Sign in

Create a free personal account to sign up for alerts, share articles, and more.

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview

Figures

Tables

References

Correspondence

CME
Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Submit a Comment

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Web of Science® Times Cited: 196

Sign in

Create a free personal account to sign up for alerts, share articles, and more.

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Jobs
brightcove.createExperiences();