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A Case-Control Study of the Relationship Between Smoking, Diet, and Gallbladder Disease

Harris Pastides, PhD; Anastasia Tzonou, DrMedSc; Dimitrios Trichopoulos, MD; Klea Katsouyanni, DrMedSc; Antonia Trichopoulou, MD; N. Kefalogiannis, MD; O. Manousos, MD
Arch Intern Med. 1990;150(7):1409-1412. doi:10.1001/archinte.1990.00390190073010.
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• Eighty-four women with roentgenographically confirmed gallbladder disease and 171 control women hospitalized at a trauma hospital in Athens, Greece, were interviewed regarding demographic, reproductive, smoking, and dietary characteristics. A food-frequency approach was used to elicit consumption of 120 food or beverage items during the period before the onset of the current illness or hospitalization. The patients were substantially less likely to be regular cigarette smokers before the current admission. Additionally the patients reported significantly less frequent consumption of total items contained in the following food groups: sugars; pulses, nuts, beans; fish; and dairy products. On average they also consumed significantly fewer alcoholic beverages. On the other hand, the patients reported more frequent consumption of items in the following food groups: cereals, potatoes, fruits, meats, fats and oils, and coffee/ tea. After controlling for confounding between food groups through multiple logistic regression models, the patients were still found to be less frequent consumers of vegetables and alcoholic beverages but more frequent consumers of potatoes and items in the cereal group. These analyses also confirmed the reduced likelihood of the patients being smokers.

(Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:1409-1412)


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