• To better understand risk factors for the development of diabetic hyperosmolar state (DHS), we studied 135 patients with DHS and 135 age-matched randomly selected diabetic controls admitted to two general hospitals during an 11-year period. To be eligible for the study, patients had to have a hospital admission glucose level of greater than 600 mg/dL (33.3 mmol/L) and an osmolality of greater than 325 mOsm/L (32.5 mmol/L). Patients were significantly more likely than controls to be female (71% vs 53%), to be nursing-home residents (28% vs 15%), to be newly diagnosed diabetics (36% vs 7%), to have a history of dementia (18% vs 8%), and to have an acute infection at the time of admission to the hospital (39% vs 19%). Multivariate analysis revealed three significant independent predictors of DHS: female gender, newly diagnosed diabetes, and acute infection; nursing-home residence and dementia had no independent effect. Other functionally debilitating diseases, acute illnesses, or medications that may impair glucose tolerance were not significantly associated with DHS.
(Arch Intern Med 1987;147:499-501)