• Cultured thymic fragments were implanted in one patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related complex (ARC) and in eight AIDS patients with opportunistic infections (Ols, four patients), Kaposi's sarcoma (KS, two patients), or both (two patients). Thereafter, objective clinical improvement was noted in one patient with 01, and a stable symptom-free condition was observed in the ARC patient and in two other patients with Ols. However, the ARC patient and two of the three patients with Ols developed infections three to six months after implantation. A fourth case of 01 and the patients with KS showed progression of the disease. Peripheral blood investigations for counts of total leukocytes, lymphocytes, and T-lymphocyte subsets as well as for lymphocyte stimulation with mitogens showed no changes interpretable as an improvement of the cellular immune deficiency status. We conclude that cultured thymic fragments have no distinct in vivo effect on the course of AIDS,
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