For almost a century, clinicians reporting the treatment of patients with cancer have been analyzing the cancers, but not the patients. The formal systems we have developed to classify patients, estimate prognosis, choose treatment, and evaluate outcomes depend almost exclusively on the morphology of the cancer. The morphology is described with "staging systems" or other taxonomies that identify a cancer's primary site, its gross anatomic spread beyond the primary location, and such microscopic attributes as histologic type, mitotic grade, and vascular relationships.
Statistical appraisals of prognosis and therapy have been greatly improved by these morphologic classifications. They have helped put an end to many past acts of statistical malpractice, such as the comparison of results for treatment A, given to patients with localized cancer, with the results of treatment B, given to patients with disseminated cancer. By insisting that treatments be contrasted only for patients having similar morphologic stages of
Thank you for submitting a comment on this article. It will be reviewed by JAMA Internal Medicine editors. You will be notified when your comment has been published. Comments should not exceed 500 words of text and 10 references.
Do not submit personal medical questions or information that could identify a specific patient, questions about a particular case, or general inquiries to an author. Only content that has not been published, posted, or submitted elsewhere should be submitted. By submitting this Comment, you and any coauthors transfer copyright to the journal if your Comment is posted.
* = Required Field
Disclosure of Any Conflicts of Interest*
Indicate all relevant conflicts of interest of each author below, including all relevant financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including, but not limited to, employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speakers’ bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued. If all authors have none, check "No potential conflicts or relevant financial interests" in the box below. Please also indicate any funding received in support of this work. The information will be posted with your response.
Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.
Download citation file:
Web of Science® Times Cited: 29
Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.
More Listings atJAMACareerCenter.com >
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a link to reset your password.
Enter your username and email address. We'll send instructions on how to reset your password to the email address we have on record.
Athens and Shibboleth are access management services that provide single sign-on to protected resources. They replace the multiple user names and passwords necessary to access subscription-based content with a single user name and password that can be entered once per session. It operates independently of a user's location or IP address. If your institution uses Athens or Shibboleth authentication, please contact your site administrator to receive your user name and password.