The causes of death in a series of 16 patients who died after renal allografting have been reviewed. Three patients died early in the transplantation period, none from complications of surgery. The most frequent cause of late death was infection; ten patients died later in the transplantation period from events related to infections. Neuropsychiatric disturbances were responsible for the deaths of three patients. Immunosuppressive therapy contributed to the deaths of eight patients. When significant infection first occurs, prompt withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy will result in a higher salvage rate.