I seem to have had three responsibilities with respect to this Symposium. The first was to present an introduction. Now, an introduction in the definition of my scientific father, Jack Peters, MD, was often referred to by him in a disparaging fashion as a throat clearing effort—and I guess that is what I was doing earlier. The second responsibility was to assemble a program that would direct its attention to the problems of uremic toxins with the explicit understanding that we would leave with no answers, but surely with more questions, newer frameworks within which we could ask and hope to answer these questions, and new models and approaches that would lend themselves to this problem-solving exercise. This, I think, was well done by the essayists and all of you who were responsive in a provocative fashion to these presentations.
The third responsibility was to present some closing remarks. Frankly,