Progress in intermittent hemodialysis and renal transplantation is rapidly advancing with improvements in techniques and equipment. Increasing numbers of medical centers throughout the world are undertaking the replacement of lost renal function. By these procedures and against this background, the European Dialysis and Transplant Association was formed in 1964 to enable workers with interests in these specialized fields to meet and discuss common problems. Since the association has rapidly increased in size, the task was difficult for selecting 39 papers for presentation during the 1½2 days of the second annual conference, held at Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, in September 1965. The papers published in the proceedings of this meeting provide useful information on the European experience in the management of acute and chronic renal failure and will be of value to clinicians caring for such patients. The papers report results and preliminary observations which are scattered throughout the world medical literature.