THE ASSOCIATION between cancer and atherosclerosis remains a controversial issue. An editorial in the Lancet stated: "Though some of the evidence is conflicting and insecure, it is clear that atherosclerosis and malignant disease are related in some peculiar way. It may well be that a better understanding of this relationship will lead to big advances in our knowledge of both types of disease." 1 It is important to study the association between diseases and the association between diseases and characteristics, eg, cigarette smoking. Oftentimes these studies lead to a better understanding of the etiology of disease, suggest ways in which the disease can be prevented or controlled, or provide information which improves diagnosis and clinical management. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between coronary atherosclerosis and cancer of various sites in Caucasian women. We previously reported on a study of this relationship in Caucasian men.