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ARTICLE |

Lymphaticovenous Communications in Man

SAM A. THREEFOOT, MD; MELVYN F. KOSSOVER, MD
Arch Intern Med. 1966;117(2):213-223. doi:10.1001/archinte.1966.03870080057010.
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ALTHOUGH it has been generally accepted that in man nearly all lymph returns to the circulation by means of the thoracic duct at its junction with the left jugular vein, other lymphaticovenous communications have been described. In this laboratory, by means of plastic corrosion models in rats, lymphaticovenous and lymphaticolymphatic communications have been demonstrated after prolonged ligation of the cisterna chyli or administration of ganglionic blocking agents.1 Other reports have described lymphaticovenous communications in rats,2 cats,3 dogs,4 and monkeys 5 by the injection of colored masses and by anatomical dissection. In 1834, Wützer demonstrated, by anatomical dissection, communications between the thoracic duct and the azygos vein in the body of a young woman whose duct was obstructed by fibrosis above the sites of the communications 6 and in 1944 Pick reported communication between the lymphatics and the venous system at the renal level in man.7 More recently, by radiographie

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