PATTERN electrocardiographers have recognized for many years that the normal deflections of the QRS complex and the T wave are in the same direction. With the advent of vector interpretation of the electrocardiogram, this empiric relationship has been subjected to more precise analysis, and the concept of the QRS-T angle has evolved. The QRS-T angle, which is a simplification of the ventricular gradient, is considered by many to be the most sensitive, clinically feasible, method for evaluating T wave abnormalities.1,2 As this method of analysis is attaining increasing popularity, it is important to determine the variations of this parameter in a normal population.
Several authors state that the normal QRS-T angle rarely exceeds 45 to 50 degrees in the frontal plane,1,3,4 but few studies on normal individuals are presently available to substantiate this value. Although large studies utilizing automatic recording of vector direction and QRS-T angles by computers