This study is a prospective evaluation of intravenous cholangiograms obtained in 1,829 patients over a five-year period by the author who is senior radiologist at the Lahey Clinic. The results of the radiological study were punch-carded, and from this massive study the present monograph was produced. The history of cholangiography is treated briefly. Iodipamide (Cholografin) was the principal agent used in these studies, and its pharmacology, acceptance by patients, and reactions are presented in detail. The technique used and the importance of preparation of the patient, positioning, frequency of films, laminography, and drugs are presented and discussed. The value of viewing early films while the patient is still accessible is stressed, because the need for special views or techniques is frequent.
Visualization of the ducts was studied in the over-all clinical material. If the serum bilirubin exceeded 4 mg/100 ml or the SBP retention 40%, the ducts would usually not