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Spatial Vectorcardiography

Charles E. Kossmann, M.D.
Arch Intern Med. 1963;111(2):271-272. doi:10.1001/archinte.1963.03620260131031.
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Essentially the book is an atlas in which are shown the stereovectorcardiograms (Scg), the electrocardiograms, and the axonocardiograms (Acg) of a group of normal and abnormal subjects. The axonocardiograms (spatial and planar) are made by a mechanical drafting device, described in detail, using the "orthogonal" leads of the "parallelepiped," or of the "cube," or of both for comparison. All stereovectorcardiograms were made with a CR tube utilizing the cube reference frame. The instrument itself, designed by Kwoczynski, Keller, and Ekiel, apparently has incorporated in it characteristics of a resolver and of a differential vectorcardiograph.

The authors have an interesting coding and graphing system for the spatial and planar axonocardiograms based on the direction of rotation of each (levodromic, or counter-clockwise, and dextrodromic, or clockwise) and the side of the spatial loop as seen by an observer stationed at the planes. The latter gives, in a gross way, the tilt of


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