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Evidence for Increased Venous Tone in Chronic Congestive Heart Failure

AMA Arch Intern Med. 1956;98(6):750-766. doi:10.1001/archinte.1956.00250300068009.
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Because venous tone is such an important, unsolved problem concerned with hemodynamic phenomena in congestive heart failure, it was considered desirable to present thoughts and experimental investigations on this subject. The early, important studies of McMichael and Sharpey-Schafer 1 and Starr and Rawson 2 on venous tone in congestive heart failure, as well as the opposing investigations of others,* should be studied by all.

Definitions  Congestive heart failure is a clinical syndrome associated with failure of the heart as a pump.The clinical pattern of ascites, hepatomegaly, generalized systemic venous hypertension, anasarca, bilateral pulmonary basal rales, dyspnea, and other symptoms and signs may have several etiologic associations, but the congestive type of failure of the heart should be considered the cause only when this syndrome is produced by or associated with failure of the heart to pump adequate quantities of blood to the tissues. According to this definition, therefore,


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The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
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