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RENAL ARTERIOVENOUS ANASTOMOSES IN RABBITS, DOGS AND HUMAN SUBJECTS

BENJAMIN SIMKIN, M.D.; H. C. BERGMAN, Ph.D.; HARRISON SILVER, M.D.; MYRON PRINZMETAL, M.D.
Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1948;81(2):115-125. doi:10.1001/archinte.1948.00220200003001.
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ALTHOUGH arteriovenous anastomoses had previously been described in various organs by some of the older anatomists, little attention was focused on them until Grant and Bland1 demonstrated direct connections between the arterioles and veins in the rabbit's ear and in human skin. These shunts are believed to be physiologically important in the control of the flow of blood through the skin and in the regulation of body temperature.2 The existence of arteriovenous anastomoses in the normal human heart was recently shown in our laboratory by a technic involving the injection of glass spheres of known sizes into the coronary arteries.3 It was decided to employ the method of injection of glass spheres in a search for such anastomoses in the normal human kidney in view of the lack of agreement concerning their existence in this organ and the potential physiologic significance of renal arteriovenous shunts.

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