There has been sustained interest in the shock therapies since 1932, when Sakel1 introduced insulin coma for schizophrenia. Its use for several years was rather empiric, and today it is used only in selected cases. In 1935 Meduna2 added metrazol convulsive therapy to the treatment of schizophrenia. It was soon found, however, to be most effective for the depressed states, particularly the reactive depressions. It was heralded as a specific for the depressions but was frowned on because of its orthopedic complications and the fears patients expressed toward it.
It is five years since electric shock therapy was introduced by Cerletti and Bini.3 There are now available a sufficient number of reports on this therapy to permit some definite conclusions. Electric shock has been accepted with considerable enthusiasm; and, although most investigators have been disappointed by their results in the treatment of some psychoses, particularly schizophrenia, it