Previous reviews1 in this series have summarized the clinical and experimental studies concerning the physiology of the gallbladder and biliary tract. The present day treatment and medical management of cholecystitis are based on these physiologic concepts. While many clinical papers have appeared during the past year, the majority have been in accord with these ideas and so do not require specific reference at present. The treatment of hepatic disease was summarized by Greene, Handelsman and Babey1c in 1937 and by Snell2 and Boyce3 in 1938 and 1939. Reference may be made to these papers for details. At present we wish to summarize recent publications dealing with the etiology of cholelithiasis and certain of the newer developments within the larger field.
ETIOLOGY OF GALLSTONES
Since the time of Naunyn a mass of clinical and experimental data dealing with gallstones has been accumulated, and a multitude of theories