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VARIATION IN CREATINE CONTENT OF HUMAN CARDIAC AND VOLUNTARY MUSCLE AT AUTOPSY

CHARLES R. LINEGAR, Ph.D.; THOMAS T. FROST, M.D.; VICTOR C. MYERS, Ph.D., D.Sc.
Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1938;61(3):430-450. doi:10.1001/archinte.1938.00020030060005.
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The discovery of phosphocreatine and of the part played by this complex in muscular contraction has brought to light one of the major functions of creatine. It appears that the breakdown of phosphocreatine furnishes energy for the contraction,1 that the amount of breakdown is concerned with the excitability of the muscle2 and that this compound also acts as a buffer in the chemical reactions of the muscular processes.3 Various but unfruitful attempts have been made to ascribe to creatine functions other than its role in muscular contraction. Since creatine is universally present in high concentration in muscle of vertebrates, it is logical to assume that it is an important constituent. Its concentration apparently depends somewhat on the function and efficiency of the muscle,4 since voluntary muscle contains the highest and smooth muscle the lowest concentration and in certain species white muscle contains more creatine than red

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