Many papers are written on psychiatry every year, but few deal with treatment. This year is an exception. Two new therapeutic methods have come into prominence; one has been discussed largely in the public press under the inexcusable name psychosurgery, and the other has caused a flood of literature in the medical press—the insulin shock treatment of schizophrenia.
Moniz, a Portuguese neurologist, well known for his studies on cerebral arteriography, and his colleague Lima1 tried to alter by cerebral surgery the mental symptoms of twenty persons suffering from different psychoses; the condition presented by ten of these would probably be classified in America as severe agitated depression, three were manic and seven were schizophrenic. All those suffering from depression were improved by interruption of tracts in the frontal lobe; the results in the two other groups were dubious. In America Freeman2 has taken up this work and