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EFFECT OF ARTERIOSCLEROSIS AND BENIGN AND MALIGNANT HYPERTENSION ON THE AREA OF HISTAMINE FLARES

A. CARLTON ERNSTENE, M.D.; MAURICE SNYDER, M.D.
Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1934;53(6):865-877. doi:10.1001/archinte.1934.00160120059006.
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The syndrome of malignant hypertension, as described by Keith and his associates,1 is characterized by severe arterial hypertension, neuroretinitis, a progressive course and a uniformly poor prognosis. The condition usually represents the final stage of benign essential hypertension, but occasionally appears to be of the malignant type from the onset. The neuroretinitis varies in severity from mild to extreme in different cases and in all but the final stage is characterized by the invariable presence of edema of the disks, with edema of the surrounding retina. This feature is often out of proportion to the other retinal changes, such as hemorrhagic areas, cotton-wool exudates and sclerosis of the retinal arteries. Renal function frequently is normal or only slightly reduced at the time the condition is first recognized. The erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content of the blood are seldom more than slightly diminished. Death usually occurs within two years after

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