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INFLUENCE OF VELOCITY ON THE RESPONSE TO INTRAVENOUS INJECTIONS

SAMUEL HIRSHFELD, M.D.; HAROLD THOMAS HYMAN, M.D.; JUSTINE J. WANGER
Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1931;47(2):259-287. doi:10.1001/archinte.1931.00140200095007.
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I. UNTOWARD EFFECTS OF RAPID INJECTION ("SPEED SHOCK")  The rapid intravenous introduction of pharmacologically active or inert chemicals, drugs and biologic fluids may frequently give rise to immediate and far-reaching nonspecific sequelae, at times serious, and occasionally fatal.1 This "speed shock" is a hazard to the clinician and annoys and baffles the laboratory worker (charts 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). In this article we shall describe, localize and discuss the possible mechanism of the deleterious effects of the rapid introduction into the blood stream of relatively innocuous substances.

MATERIAL AND TECHNIC  Our observations were made on anesthetized and unanesthetized animals. For the work without anesthesia, dogs and rabbits were used, and the injections were made with the hand syringe. The rate of injection could not be accurately measured, but usually from 2 to 5 cc. was introduced as rapidly as the plunger could be pressed. Under anesthesia, sixty-two animals

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