Agranulocytosis or agranulocytic angina, so called, was described as a clinical entity by Schultz1 in 1922. Since that time it has been widely accepted as such; numerous additional cases have been reported, and the name has come to be regarded by many clinicians as descriptive of a hitherto undescribed disease entity. A number of writers have maintained, however, that the picture described by Schultz was not specific; with this view we agree. In addition to recording an additional case showing necrotic oropharyngeal lesions, agranulocytic leukopenia and general sepsis, we wish to review briefly the clinical and pathologic features of the cases previously reported and to consider several possible explanations for the picture produced. The view that so-called agranulocytosis simply constitutes a type of leukopenic reaction to an overwhelming infection seems to us to be nearest the truth, and the one on which we wish to place greatest emphasis.