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Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1928;42(4):508-511. doi:10.1001/archinte.1928.00130210056005.
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In 1906, Graves began his observations on scapular types and their relation to morbidity in the individual subject. Since then, in numerous papers he1 has presented the results of his studies, which include a classification of scapulae according to their vertebral borders, as convex, straight and concave. The last two types he grouped together and called scaphoid. In them, he found that the bone is longer, the inferior angle more acute and the spine more horizontal. The classification of scapulae according to age periods showed a striking decrease in the incidence of the scaphoid type as old age was approached. This he explained as due either to a change from the scaphoid to the convex type, as the individual grew older, or to a greater mortality among those with the scaphoid type of scapula. Examination of the scapulae of the fetuses showed definite types as early as the tenth


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