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CHANGES IN RESPIRATION, IN CIRCULATION AND IN THE COAGULATION TIME OF BLOOD PRODUCED BY SODIUM CITRATE INJECTIONS

MINAS JOANNIDES, M.D.
Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1926;37(2):248-256. doi:10.1001/archinte.1926.00120200098008.
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In a recent study of the toxicity of sodium citrate on exsanguinated dogs we noticed abnormal variations of the coagulation time of the blood.1 About this time Neuhof and Hirshfeld2 published a paper asserting that intramuscular injections of sodium citrate in doses of 30 cc. of 30 per cent solution for 150 pounds (68 Kg.) would decrease the coagulation time of the blood. So sure were these observers of their results that they advised the use of sodium citrate as a matter of routine in cases of actual or impending hemorrhage. In view of the fact that sodium citrate ordinarily is regarded as an anticoagulant, a careful study of this phenomenon was attempted.

It has been generally accepted that the citrate and oxalate group of anticoagulants affect the blood calcium so that it does not perform its essential share in the process of coagulation. Oxalates are anticoagulants because they precipitate

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