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ARTICLE |

METHODS OF RECOGNIZING SCAPULAR TYPES IN THE LIVING

WILLIAM WASHINGTON GRAVES, M.D.
Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1925;36(1):51-61. doi:10.1001/archinte.1925.00120130054006.
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My investigations1 led to the classification of scapulae (convex, straight and concave), and brought the scapula into definite relation with a number of biologic problems. Among these may be mentioned: morphogenesis and ontogenesis in general; bone growth; bone form and variation in man and other vertebrates; the modification of bones by muscle attachments, muscle pull and various environmental influences in prenatal and postnatal periods; age changes in bone and other tissues; human heredity; human longevity; human morbidity, and human adaptability in general. The relations of the scapula to the foregoing problems and the desirability of establishing uniform and dependable methods of recognizing scapular types in the living are shown by recalling some recent findings.

SUMMARY OF SOME RECENT FINDINGS 

  1. Some recent findings are: Similar scapular types are present in varying degrees and percentages in the skeletal remains of all accessible human races and stocks both ancient and modern.

  2. Scapular

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