Although many tests of kidney function have come into prominence and waned to insignificance, albuminuria has long been a simple criterion of abnormality. But albuminuria is not a sure indication of damaged kidneys; for it may appear when these organs are normal, as in orthostatic albuminuria,1 or it may be absent in a wide spread degeneration of the kidneys, as in interstitial nephritis. Furthermore, as will be pointed out in this paper, albuminuria may be excessive from passive congestion of the kidneys, the primary difficulty being in the heart. When albuminuria is excessive and associated with oliguria and apparent uremia,2 as a late event in arterial hypertension, or in circulatory failure, it may cause much apprehension; on the other hand, the absence of albumin in the urine may give a false sense of security.
The nephroses of acute infection or resulting from focal infection, are associated with albuminuria,3 more or