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INTERPRETATIONS OF THE INITIAL PHASES OF THE ELECTROCARDIOGRAM WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE THEORY OF "LIMITED POTENTIAL DIFFERENCES"

SIR THOMAS LEWIS, M.D., F.R.C.P.
Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1922;30(3):269-285. doi:10.1001/archinte.1922.00110090002001.
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The subject chosen for this lecture is one on which much has been written in recent years, but upon which there is still no complete consensus of opinion. In a review1 written about three years ago I attempted to explain the constitution of the electrocardiogram on a new basis and put forward views of a novel kind. These views have been accepted by a number of workers; from other workers they have received criticism, publicly or privately expressed. The lack of uniform conclusions, I think, results largely from misunderstandings, such misunderstandings as may be expected to arise when the subject discussed is not only intricate but concerned with the ultimate processes of cellular activity and its manifestations. In studying the electrocardiogram we attempt to explain its general deflections in rational terms, yet the terms which we are forced to employ are terms which refer to intimate and intangible effects of

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