We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |


Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1922;30(1):1-33. doi:10.1001/archinte.1922.00110070004001.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


The study of intercostal muscle function began with Galen, who believed the external intercostals to be expiratory and the internal intercostals inspiratory. This teaching was unquestioned until Vesalius, thirteen hundred years later, interpreted both external and internal muscles as having the same function. Thomas Willis, of Oxford, in 1673 for the first time interpreted the external muscles as inspiratory and the internal as purely expiratory. In 1748, Hamberger devised his famous model and the theory which has been quoted in all subsequent physiologic literature on respiration. Luciani says Hamberger's model "is an incomplete reproduction of costal excursion, but it served to elucidate the mechanism"—faint praise but quite sufficient for a scheme which misrepresents both costal excursion and intercostal function.

The only experimental confirmation of Hamberger's theory that is at all worthy of the problem is Martin and Hartwell's, an account of which was published in 1879. These experimenters isolated a


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview





Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.